Barrett’s oesophagus is caused by reflux of stomach acid and bile into the oesophagus (the long, muscular tube connecting your mouth and stomach causing irritation and inflammation. This is known medically as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD or GERD).
The cause of most bowel cancers is still unknown, but we do know that risk increases with age (95% of bowel cancer cases are found in people aged 50 or over*).
Coeliac disease is an allergic response to the molecule gluten, which is found in wheat, rye and barley.
Colon cancer is a malignant tumour that starts in the colon (the large bowel) or the rectum (sometimes called the back passage).
A duodenal ulcer is an open sore that occurs when the protective mucus lining the wall of the intestine breaks down. Bacteria, stomach acid and digestive enzymes can then damage the wall itself.
Haemorrhoids, or piles as they are also known, are swellings that are a result of enlarged and distended blood vessels and veins around your anus and rectum.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is what most people would refer to as heartburn. It’s an extremely common problem caused when some of the stomach acid refluxes back up into the oesophagus. Symptoms are uncomfortable, but the problem usually responds well to treatment.
The most common symptom of a hernia is a swelling in the groin or abdomen that may be more noticeable when you cough, strain or stand up.
Inflammatory bowel disease is an umbrella term that covers both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.
Ulcerative colitis is a form of inflammatory bowel disease that can affect people of any age but tends to occur for the first time in childhood or young adult life. Ulcerative colitis, which can be very debilitating, affects around 120,000 people in the UK.
Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are abnormal masses of neuroendocrine cells. They can be benign or malignant and most commonly occur in the digestive system.
Polyps are growths in your bowel that are non-cancerous. A polyp may have a distinct stalk and a head, while in other cases they’re much flatter and look like lumps on the lining of your bowel. Polyps can occur anywhere in your colon or rectum, so it is important to examine the whole colon from rectum to appendix.
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