When the tumour, or lump is benign and the patient wishes to have it removed; or if it is confirmed as malignant cancer, then breast conserving surgery is appropriate. This is a wide local excision 'lumpectomy' and is done through a small cosmetic incision.

In the case of malignancy the axillary (armpit) lymph nodes will have been assessed by ultrasound and if they appear healthy, one or two will have been removed for analysis – also known as sentinel lymph node biopsy.

The special technique for identifying the correct lymph node is available at The London Clinic.